再見師造化 ——林學明《觸山》系列觀后

近日在網上看到陳穎編譯薩爾茲(Jerry Saltz)的一篇短文《為什么新抽象主義作品看起來如此類似》,文中附了六組圖片,每組5至6件作品,作品均有出處,互相比較,的確雷同嚴重。文章將此歸因于投合市場。

Recently I came across one short article online titled "Why Are Neo-abstract Expressionist Works Look So Much Alike?", which was written by Jerry Saltz and edited by Chen Ying. In the article six groups of images were attached, each containing 5 to 6 pieces of art works with provenances. One could easily detect a serious resemblance or similarity between the pieces and, according to the article, the market-oriented mentality is to blame for it.

就我二十余年的批評經歷看,問題并不那么簡單,不少藝術家在未成名時帶著強烈的反世俗、反成規,不顧貧窮和環境壓力關門作畫,面世后卻不期然與別人撞車,此類現象在抽象藝術中尤其多見。其根源就在抽象藝術自身。

Nevertheless, my experience as an art critic over the past twenty years tells me the problem is not as simple as it appears. Quite a number of unknown artists were totally engaged in their art creations behind closed doors, despite their poverty and depressive living conditions, with a strong sense of anti-social norms and established rules .Yet their finished works, once shown to the public, may accidentally bear a resemblance or similarity to those already created by other artists. Such a phenomenon is especially true in the genre of abstract art, due to the nature of abstract art itself.

從純藝術穿透到反藝術,其時空隧道是沒有厚度的“零”,杜尚稱為“致虛薄”,豐塔衲畫布上一刀捅破了窗戶紙,使純粹化的極限瞬間轉為反藝術的弧光。抽象藝術比較靠近“零”點,因此譜系較窄。與光譜類似,純粹的譜系無限窄于混雜的譜系。當康定斯基推行他的《點·線·面》理論之后,“畫布上的創造”,“純造型的世界”便成了抽象藝術家的口頭禪,但沒走幾步,人們突然發現:好像已經沒路了。馬列維奇的純黑方塊,克萊因的純藍畫布,雷曼的白色畫布,桑德、紐曼、里希特的單純紅色,彼此之間到底是異還是同?后來者對先行者到底是模仿還是獨創?看來,怎么回答都是陷阱。

From pure art to anti-art, the physical scope is “zero” without any gap, which, according to Marcel Duchamp, is called “Infra- Mince”. The moment when Lucio Fontana cut open his canvas, he turns the pure limit space into an anti-art arc light. The abstract art lays very close to the “zero” point, with a relatively narrow scope . Similar to the spectra - the scope of pure spectrum is infinitely narrower than that of the mixed one. Following the introduction of the theory "Point-Line-Surface" by  Kandinsky, the so-called "creation on the canvas" and "creative world " have become the pet phrases of the abstract artists. Nevertheless, it did not last long since people started to realize that they could go nowhere with them. In the cases of Kazimir Malevich's pure black blocks, Klein's pure blue canvas, Lehman’s white canvas, Sander, Newman and Richter’s pure red color, are they different or similar anyway? Are the predecessors imitating their pioneers, or simply creating their own? There seem no correct answers to this question at all.

林學明既然邁入抽象繪畫,必然要面對如何擺脫雷同的困境。

目前說林學明大功告成還為時尚早,重要的是他避免了雷同。無論是始于2008年的書寫系列還是始于2012年的排筆系列,個性都很清晰,都形成了自己的創作脈絡。究其因,是他擺脫了畫布上的關門創作,擺脫了僅在點線面之中苦思冥想,轉而面向生活,讓一千多年前唐人張璪“外師造化,中得心源”的理念在抽象藝術中重新復活。只是對于今日的藝術家而言,造化指一切生滅演化的視覺對象,包括自然界以及人類社會的物質產品和精神產品。從這個意義上說,師造化而得心源正是多數成功的抽象藝術大家的共同經驗。摩爾在拜石中獨得心源,米羅在有機世界中獨得心源,德·庫寧在女人體面前獨得心源,波洛克則在師法新的媒介物質時獨得心源……

Having touched on abstract arts, Sherman Lin has to deal with this dilemma of avoiding resemblance or similarity.

It may be too early to conclude that Sherman Lin has already achieved major success, yet it is his success in jumping out of that trap of resemblance or similarity that counts. Whether in his Calligraphic Painting Series starting from 2008 or in his Broad Brush Painting Series starting from 2012, he has achieved his own distinctiveness and formed his own creativity traits. Coming out from the closed door, Sherman frees himself from the painful study of “Point-Line-Surface” and turns to real life, re-living the principle of "Being inspired by the external universe, while remaining loyal to one’s internal world" by Zhang Zao, a traditional Chinese artist in Tang dynasty over a thousand years ago. In the eyes of the contemporary artists, nature consists of all visual objects, dead or alive, remaining or evolving, which include nature itself, the material products as well as the spiritual world of the human society. It is in this sense that “Turning to nature for artistic inspiration” has been the experience shared by many successful abstract art masters, such as Henry Spencer Moore, who was inspired by the stones, Joan Miró, motivated by the organic world, Willem De Kooning  stimulated by female’s figures and both Pierre Soulages and Jackson Pollock who were  encouraged by the new media.

林學明呢?他在師法人化自然、人造產品中獨得心源。當然,這只是個粗略的說法,他同時也在師法原自然。

As for Sherman, he is inspired both by nature as well as by artifacts. Of course, this is just a general conclusion, as he is at the same time learning from the pure nature as well.

林學明是位設計師,但他明確反對將設計直接變為抽象繪畫,他強調的是生活與心靈的獨特感應,只是因為設計是他生活和生命存在的基本方式,生活與心靈的感應便不可避免地卻又是自然而然地帶上了設計的烙印和遺韻。

Being a designer himself, Sherman is unequivocally against the direct transformation from designed works to abstract arts. What he focuses on is a unique merging point between secularity and spirituality. Designing being the fundamental part of his life and living, this merging point between secularity and spirituality inevitably and naturally bears the traits and charms of designing.

林學明是如何發現生活與心靈的獨特觸點的?以不拘泥于排筆的排筆系列為例,有幾點十分重要:

How does Sherman discover this unique merging point between secularity and spirituality? We can find several significant clues from his Broad Brush Painting Series which are not restricted to the broad brushes alone:

1、     改變觀察方式。與傳統的觀察方式和取景習慣不同,林學明十分擅長超常規地局部觀察和微觀取景,為此他積累了豐富的圖像資料。他因擅長這種觀察方式而陶醉其中,因陶醉其中而有所發現,因有所發現而趨向了抽象,因經常面對設計產品而悟得了獨特的幾何構成和排筆結構,進而又在人化自然和原自然的關聯中發現了幾何抽象和抒情抽象、方直排筆和流紋排筆的互補結構。在他作品中,整體的幾何構成和排筆并不完全重合,而是時分時合的兩個方面。他有時直接以排筆繪出幾何構成,畫面結構即排筆結構,這類作品在前些年較多;有時則用方直排筆和流紋排筆反復交錯反復疊加的方式繪出整體的幾何構成,排筆結構只是畫面結構的組成元素,近來這類作品越來越多。從發展趨勢看,后一種方式更有潛力。使用排筆的藝術家并不少見,林學明創造了自己的陰陽、剛柔、虛實、動靜、情理、寒熱相克相生的語言結構和精神結構,從而獨立于排筆之群。

1.       Methods of observation: His unique ways of observation, Different from the conventional ways of view finding, Sherman is exceptionally skillful in his unconventional partial observation and micro-view finding. For this purpose he has accumulated a huge reservoir of image collections . Totally carried away by this unique way of observation, he has been rewarded with new findings which evolve to abstract expressionism. His frequent involvement in product designs has inspired him to the creation of his unique Broad Brush Painting Structure, and the discovery of the mutually supplementary structures between Geometric Abstractionism and Lyric Abstractionism, Square and Straight Broad Brush Strokes and Flow Line Broad Brush Strokes, based on his understanding of the correlation between humanized nature and the pure nature.  In his works, the overall geometric compositions do not overlap completely with his broad brush. Rather, they are two sides of the same coin. Sometimes, he makes the geometric compositions with broad brush, which turns the whole picture into a broad brush structure(such a technique was more frequently seen in his earlier works); other times he alternates between square and straight broad brush strokes and flow line broad brush strokes or overlaps the two to create his overall geometric compositions, while broad brush structure simply serves as one component of the overall picture(such technique has been applied more often in his recent works). From a future development perspective, the latter promises greater potentials. There are many artists who use broad brushes, yet it is Sherman who has stood out among his peers by creating his unique artistic language structure and frame of mind, consisting of contradictory yet harmonious elements such as Ying and Yang, firmness and flexibility, reality and fancy, movement and motionlessness, sense and sensibility, and coldness and warmth.

2、     改變寫生方式。在古典藝術中,中國與歐洲的寫生方式差異巨大,歐洲是鏡象式寫生,中國傳統繪畫一直采取的卻是應象式寫生。所謂應象式,就是用一套筆墨規范和造型程式應對自然,程式使自然轉化為具有繪畫程式的自然,寫生又使程式不斷獲得鮮活的生機。西方自塞尚提出“第二自然”之后,應象式寫生逐漸取代了鏡象式寫生的主流地位,它與中國傳統應象式寫生的最大不同在于藝術觀念的現代性,這突出表現為以個體程式的創造取代集體程式的運用。林學明的寫生方式便是在現代性的意義上,既逆反于西方古典又逆反于中國傳統的寫生方式。林學明在草創了自己的語言結構和精神結構之后,便以一種個人化的新的視覺結構應對物象,以個體程式對景寫生,近兩年黃山、太行山、秘魯利馬、加拿大洛磯山的寫生便是如此,正如他自己所說:“有時我把自然中的微觀,看成是一件器物,把恢宏的太行山脈看作是屏風或是器形”。

2.       His unique ways of live painting. There was a significant difference between the Chinese way of live painting and the European way in classical arts. The European way is called “Mirror Image Method”, while the Chinese traditional painting had applied the method of “Responsive Image Method”, which adopted a series of painting rules and image formats that reflected the nature. These formats transformed nature into certain paintable formats which had been constantly rejuvenated and revived through live painting.  Ever since the introduction of Paul Cézanne’s “the Second Nature”, the “Responsive Image Method” has gradually replaced the predominating place of “Mirror Image Method” which differs significantly from the traditional Chinese one in terms of the contemporary nature of its artistic concepts, highlighted by the creation of individual formats instead of the application of collective ones. Sherman’s methods of live painting, in a contemporary sense, differ from either the western classics or the traditional Chinese way. After forming his own broad brush painting structure and his frame of mind, Sherman responds to the nature with a brand-new, unique and personalized visual structure and conducts his live paintings with an individual format, which was best exemplified in his live works series on Yellow Mountain,Taihang Mountain, Lima of Peru, and Rocky Mountain of Canada over the last two years. To quote his own words, “Sometimes I regard the mini-views in nature as an object. For example, the magnanimous Taihang Mountain was viewed as partition screens or shaped objects.”

3、     改變筆墨規范。中國傳統筆墨規范的核心是書法用筆,其基本支柱是中鋒用筆、以線立本、一波三折等等。林學明延續現代水墨畫前輩開拓的思路,逆反于傳統筆墨規范,不再拘泥于中鋒用筆、以線立本、一波三折的書法用筆,開創了自己的方直排筆和流紋排筆的互補結構,并正在形成自己的筆墨規范。這種背離傳統的根據恰在傳統之中。其一,傳統筆墨的神髓是筆墨即心性,也就是將筆墨紙硯水和顏料等媒介物質視為造化,筆墨就是媒介物質在運動中與心性的合一。林學明繪畫與此神髓并不相悖。其二,傳統筆墨的品鑒標準無非絕妙二字:“絕”者,我用我法是也;“妙”者,境界超凡是也。林學明排筆系列四年求索,正是在這兩個方面不斷攀升的過程。其三,傳統筆墨“力透紙背”的古訓在今天依然有效,它的要點是避免水性材料極易出現的疲軟輕滑、浮泛淺薄之弊。只是在林學明作品中,它的意義不再限于黃賓虹說的“五筆七墨”,而是立足于筆墨結構的力度;甚至不再限于筆墨自身,而是在形、筆、色、布局、空間的整體結構中,讓筆墨結構的力度真正生效。

3.       His innovative painting rules. The core of traditional Chinese paintings is the application of calligraphic strokes, the key elements of which consist of a strictly vertical brush pressing hard downward, the thin lines outlining the shapes, and strokes full of twists and turns, etc. Carrying on the concepts developed by the pioneers of the contemporary Chinese Ink and Wash Paintings and breaking away from the traditional painting rules, Sherman Lin is no longer confined by those aforementioned key elements. Instead, he creates his own mutually supplementary structures between geometric broad brush and flow lines paintings, and is establishing a new set of painting rules of his own. Amazingly, such rebellion and revolution against the tradition are dictated by the tradition itself. For one thing, the essence of traditional paintings lies in its expression of the heart and soul. Namely, all the painting media, such as the brushes, the ink, the paper and the water are regarded as part of the nature,  and painting means the mingling and merging of these media in motion with the heart and soul. Sherman’s paintings have not deviated from such essence. Furthermore, the criteria for the appreciation of a Chinese Ink and Wash Painting is none other than these two words: “Exceptionally unique”.  “Unique” means the application of highly personalized methods; while “exceptional” describes an enhanced and elevated artistic level.. The four-year journey of discovery in his creation of Broad Brush Painting Series is indeed a process of continuing enhancement and elevation in Sherman’s artistic career in his relentless pursuit for exceptional uniqueness. Thirdly, the ancient theory of “penetrating power of the brush and ink” is still valid today, as it highlights the importance of avoiding the sluggish and slippery strokes that tend to happen easily with those watery materials which make the picture seem superficial and shallow. In Sherman Lin’s works, however, his adaptation of this theory is not confined to the what Bin Hong Huang preached as “Five Ways Strokes and Seven Styles of Inks”, but rather focuses on forcefulness of the painting structure. It is even not confined to the strokes themselves, but rather expressed in the overall structure that consists of the shapes, the brushes, the colors, the layouts, and the space, which effectively delivers the power of strokes structure.

以上幾個方面反反求正的藝術探索,用林學明自己的話說就是:“以形反形,抽象后再抽象。以水墨反水墨,留水墨之神韻作畫面基礎。色彩借構成設計優勢,以灰調布局,與墨對沖。”

As Sherman puts it, the above-mentioned areas of revolutionary artistic adventure “use shapes against shapes, distill abstractionism from abstractionism, apply ink and wash to offset ink and wash, while keeping the essence and spirit of water and wash painting as the foundation of the paintings. The layout is based on grey color to offset the ink, demonstrating a color scheme that takes on the advantage of his designing background.”

林學明的排筆系列名為《觸山》,這不僅是對作品驚濤拍岸的詩化意境的提示,也是對創作中跌宕起伏的博弈狀態的提示。

Sherman Lin’s Abstract Broad Brush Series is named “Falling Mountains”, hinting not only the poetic mood of his works that illustrate the overwhelming mightiness of the avalanching power of the falling rocks, but also reminding us the tempestuous relationship between him and his works.

與古典意義的“師造化”說再見。

在抽象藝術中與“師造化”再次相遇。

抽象藝術沒有終結,大千造化和萬種心源的交會,潛藏著眾多的可能性。

Farewell to the old-fashioned way of “Learning from Nature”.

Rendezvous with a new style of “Learning from Nature” in abstract arts.

Abstract arts, far from coming to an end, harbor huge potentials and possibilities when they interact with nature and the infinite world of our heart and soul.

2015年2月20日   于三亞

20 February 2015

In San Ya City

 

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